NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English Unit 3 – Glimpses of the Past
Glimpses of the Past
Comprehension Check (Page 45)
Look at Picture 1 and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer? Who else do you see in this picture?
The opening lines of the original song in Hindi are –
“Aye mere watan ke logon, tum khub laga lo naara
yeh shubh din hai ham sab ka, lehralo tiranga pyaara
par mat bhulo seema par, veeron ne hai praan ganvaaye
kuchh yaad unhe bhee kar lo – (2)
jo laut ke ghar naa aaye – (2)
This beautiful heart-touching track was sung by Lata Mangeshkar.
In the picture, we see great leaders of India namely – Lal Bahadur Shastri, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Mahatma Gandhi and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
In Picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s “superior weapons”?
The East India Company’s “superior weapons” refers to the arms and ammunitions such as guns and cannons, wit, strong rules and regulations and diplomacy of the British rulers.
Who is an artisan? Why do you think the artisans suffered? (Picture 3)
An artisan is a skilled craft worker who creates decorative or functional items manually. The artisans suffered as the British were extracting high taxes from them because of which they were facing economic loss on their products. Moreover, the British were importing machine-manufactured items from England and selling them on a large scale, thereby ruining the existing market of hand-made products made by the artisans.
Which picture, according to you, reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt?
Picture 7 – The Sparks (1855-57) reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt.
Working with the text (Page 45)
Answer the following questions.
Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?
Yes, the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757 as they failed to see and understand the bad intentions of the British rulers. The British slowly became virtual rulers who tried to capture the whole country by winning the confidence of princes and helping them win small battles against other local princes.
How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?
The East India Company spread their business by importing machine-manufactured items from England and selling them extensively. The Indian princes were constantly at loggerheads and fighting with each other. Due to this, they took the help of the English merchants to fight their counterparts. The ordinary people lost peace due to these constant fights. These rivalries indirectly helped the East India Company subdue the Indian princes one at a time and slowly gain complete control over the masses.
Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.
Ram Mohan Roy quoted to his wife Uma that “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions but the essence of every religion is the same.”
In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?
The British exploited Indians in several ways. They imposed high taxes on the peasants, reduced the import duty on goods manufactured in England and imported those to India and cut the thumbs of expert artisans and ruined their business.
Name these people.
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.)
- Tipu Sultan of Mysore fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, a learned man from Bengal was one person who wanted to reform the society.
- Macaulay, an Englishman was the one who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
- Two popular leaders who led the revolt were Maulvi Ahmedulla of Faizabad and Peshwa Nana Saheb.
Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.
- Child marriage and untouchability.
- Firstly, the British did not impose any import duty on goods manufactured in England and this crippled the Indian cottage industries. Secondly, the British continued to oppress Indians in 1818 by passing the Regulation III, under which an Indian could be jailed without trial in a court.
- The farmers were heavily taxed by the British and the thumbs of the skilled artisans were cut to ruin their business.
- Given below are the four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence:
- In Bengal, the Santhals lost their lands under new British land rules and they became desperate and rose in rebellion and massacred Europeans in 1855.
- The Indian sepoys of the British army were discontent and angry as the white soldiers were getting huge pay, mansions to live in along with servants.
- The Brahmin soldiers were furious when they came to know that the grease on the bullet that they were biting was made from the fat of cows and pigs.
- Many landlords were sore because they had lost their lands and estates due to the harsh British policies.
Working with language (Page 46)
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
(i) First man: We must educate our brothers.
Second man: And try to improve their material conditions.
Third man: For that we must convey our grievances to the British Parliament.
a) The first man said that ______________________________________________
b) The second man added that _______________________________________
c) The third man suggested that ________________________________________
(ii) First soldier: The white soldier gets huge pay, mansions and servants.
Second soldier: We get a pittance and slow promotions.
Third soldier: Who are the British to abolish our customs?
a) The first soldier said that ___________________________________________
b) The second soldier remarked that __________________________________
c) The third soldier asked __________________________________________
(a) The first man said that they must educate their brothers.
(b) The second man added that they must try to improve their material conditions.
(c) The third man suggested that they must convey their grievances to the British Parliament.
(a) The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants.
(b) The second soldier remarked that they got a pittance and slow promotions.
(c) The third soldier asked who the British were to abolish their customs.